We are all meant to be soldiers of Christ — a term the modern Church has tragically abandoned for more pacifistic and effeminate expressions. And now we know the reasons.
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According to Eric G. Jay, the interpretation of his writing is disputed, but it is clear that he supports some sort of approved continuation of the ministry exercised by the apostles Hegesippus ? You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account.
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Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. Share this: Twitter Facebook. Like this: Like Loading Are Islam and Catholicism Equally Violent? Members must swear to uphold its statement of purpose which states that Islam is the greatest current threat against humanity, and that "Faith Defenders" have an obligation to convert all practitioners of the Muslim faith.
Madden has pointed out that this "modern criticism of the crusades derives principally from a wide-spread belief that the medieval crusades were evil precisely because they were wars of religion. This modern perception is also significant to a study of the crusades, for it is through the reinvention and seemingly "false" interpretations of these historical events that some of the most enduring ideological legacies of the crusades have survived and developed.
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The intent of this project, is to illustrate the medieval origins and cultural implications of the crusades, and the continued references to these religious wars in western imagination. One of the first obstacles in summing up the history of the crusades is the wide-ranging and almost indefinable nature of these numerous medieval campaigns. Emphasis, in pop culture as well as in academia, is often placed on the crusades fought in the Levant. Nevertheless, the term "crusade," as historians refer to it, encompasses a wide geographic and ethnic range and a host of motivations.
Origins : The spread of Islam from the 7th century onward caused Western Christendom to reevaluate its doctrinal attitudes towards religious warfare. Augustine of Hippo had outlined the conditions of a just war, but decried the use of war as a means to the conversion or slaughter of pagans and heretics. The conquest of Christian lands, however, represented a threat not just to local kingdoms but to Christianity itself, and the Reconquista the reconquering of Spain by the Christians, c. Though other popes had begun to generate interest among European -- predominately Frankish -- nobility in aiding Byzantium and fending off the Turkish threat, it was Pope Urban II who actually initiated the First Crusade.
On November 27, , at the Council of Clermont, Urban II delivered a speech that would be repeated throughout Europe, and whose probably embellished sentiments would be voiced to the general populace by local clergy.
While an exact transcription of the speech has not survived, several versions ranging in accuracy and reliability do exist which indicate that Urban called for a war that would alleviate the suffering and persecution of eastern Christians and free the Holy Land of Muslim occupation.
Urban's speech inspired the widespread preaching of bishops and priests, whose frequent references to the continued persecution of Christ, correlative biblical passages, and feudal obligation to God spurred thousands of men and women to "take up the cross" and join the armies headed to the Levant.
But while Jerusalem retained a certain ideological primacy in medieval culture and continued to be a source of inspiration for various martial campaigns in the high Middle Ages, the indulgence and the desire to defend the lands of Christ were concepts readily applied to regions other than Palestine soon after the campaigns that began in The First Crusade should not then be viewed as a strict template upon which other crusading endeavors were successfully or unsuccessfully modeled. Pope Eugenius in officially identified the Reconquista as a crusade perhaps as a means of ensuring that Christian warriors remained in Spain to war with the Moors.
Several crusades throughout Europe were organized to eliminate various heretical or pagan sects and subcultures the Albigensians or Cathars, the Germanic Wends, etc. The ideology of the crusade was widely applied to diffuse military campaigns throughout Europe; as such, there was less and less incentive to make a redemptive journey to Jerusalem when the same religious goal could be attained much closer to one's own territory.
Ultimately, this evolution of crusading ideology contributed dramatically to the decline of the Latin Kingdom because progressively fewer people were journeying to defend it. Interpreting the Historical Crusades : Were the crusades particularly the Levantine campaigns a collective failure? Steven Runciman, the famous Byzantianist and Crusades historian of the mid-twentieth century, would argue that they most certainly were. In "The Summing-Up" of his three-volume history on the Crusades, he argues that:. He argues that the crusades had little lasting effect on Western Europe, that the "chief benefit obtained by Western Christendom [and the Islamic world] from the [c]rusades was negative," and that the harm done to Eastern Christendom was cataclysmic.
Runciman's interpretation of these campaigns has had an enduringly powerful influence on contemporary popular perceptions of the crusades. Both Madden and Christopher Tyerman have commented upon his importance in this context, with Tyerman specifically reflecting on the fact that many people, from the late Middle Ages to the present, would have agreed with Runciman's interpretation of the Crusades. Tyerman, however, quickly accounts for the fact that many others, from "educated circles around Urban II at the end of the eleventh century" to several contemporary scholars themselves included would have taken issue with Runciman's perspective.
While modern audiences are quick to judge and condemn the crusaders, Madden drawing, in part, on the work of Jonathan Riley-Smith reminds the reader that the crusades were often viewed by contemporaries as acts of "piety, charity, and love" and argues for a proper contextualization of these campaigns:. This desire for contextualization has a long tradition among crusades historians and is a frequently encouraged practice.
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Tyerman, however, in quoting the German historian H. Mayer, cautions that, while this approach is valuable, neither scholar nor more casual "observer" can avoid seeing "the crusades filtered through the material of his own mind. This timeline highlights several key moments in the struggle for Christian control of the Levant, with some acknowledgment of crusading movements outside of the Middle East.
Emphasis has been placed upon the Levantine crusades, since they have been evoked most consistently throughout the centuries in Western European and American art, literature, and propaganda.
For a comprehensive timeline, see The Routledge Companion to the Crusades. Ideology and Preaching of the Crusade. By , Urban II's call for a crusade was only part of a larger shifting in theological interpretations and justifications of warfare: the Reconquista in Spain, for instance, had been under way for over two centuries and was rooted in a re-fashioned understanding of just war theory. The explicit blending of pilgrimage and warfare gave the First Crusade a unique potency that triggered widespread enthusiasm across feudal social boundaries.
Pilgrimage was a common practice during the Middle Ages and, given the perils of travel, pilgrims often armed themselves for defense. The ideology of the crusade, however, was one rooted in the practice of redemptive pilgrimage as well as conquest. Pilgrims journeying to particular locations often wore tokens to indicate their status and their destination. If on the way to Rome, a pilgrim would wear a badge with keys; to Santiago de Compostella, a scallop shell; to Jerusalem, a palm frond.
The crusaders heading to the Levant wore a badge as well, one of a red cross -- this token was sewn onto the shoulder of their outer garment and evoked Christ's call for His followers to "take up their cross" and follow Him. Urban II called for a massive army to defend Byzantium against the Turks and to win Jerusalem, and itinerant clergy preached throughout Europe on behalf of the pope. To fuel enthusiasm for war, they used Biblical passages that corresponded to the cause; they also used polemical images of the Turks in their sermons, and frequently referenced the ideology of the feudal system.
Thomas Madden explains their use of this particular rhetorical device:.https://stiminanmanni.ml
When Muslim Knights Were Held in High Esteem, by the Crusaders
Certain themes and narratives in High and Late medieval literature developed from the popularity of the crusades and the goal of claiming Jerusalem for Christianity. These motifs and stories were also inspired by the crusader's desire for glory, the promise of redemption offered by holy war, and the fantasized and actual dangers posed by the Muslim east.
Charlemagne, one of the Christian Nine Worthies, 22 was a popular literary figure, and tales both real and legendary of his adventures and battles with the Moors made for easy conflations with crusader-themes. Even King Arthur undergoes a literary transformation in the later Middle Ages: he appears in the Alliterative Morte Arthure , and subsequently Malory's Le Morte Darthur , as a king who consolidates and defends Britain and as an Emperor with plans to defend Christianity against the heathen East and conquer the world.
Saracens -- as individuals and as a generalized cultural group -- appear frequently and prominently in later medieval literature, alternately depicted as sympathetic figures to be converted or diabolical enemies who must be annihilated at all costs. Despite this developing literary tradition and due perhaps to historical and legendary accounts of his courtesy to Richard I, Saladin -- particularly in Medieval French literature -- becomes a chivalric exemplar. The crusades continued to be transformed in literature and the arts after the Middle Ages, as is exemplified by the images and books in this section.
While certain individuals, such as Voltaire and Hume, harshly criticized the religious campaigns, a general romanticizing of the crusades developed and endured in the arts. Beginning in the seventeenth century, the term "crusade" was frequently used metaphorically to refer to the pursuit of a worthy goal. The word is still versatile today, though reactions to the term within particular contexts can be quite severe.
The historical crusades, particularly after the events of September 11, have been increasingly scrutinized by scholars, auteurs, singers, and authors alike.
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This sampling of films, cartoons, books, and music from the twentieth and twenty-first centuries demonstrates the wide spectrum of interest in the history of these enduringly controversial and inspirational movements. Thomas F. Wheatcroft, Madden, Crusades, 1. This term refers to the territory in the Middle East that borders the Mediterranean. Tyerman quotes the crusades historian H. Mayer The Crusades, trans.