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This helps sharks distinguish between the currents around them, obstacles off on their periphery, and struggling prey out of visual view. Shark lifespans vary by species. Most live 20 to 30 years. The spiny dogfish has one of the longest lifespans at more than years. Unlike most bony fish , sharks are K-selected reproducers, meaning that they produce a small number of well-developed young as opposed to a large number of poorly developed young.

Fecundity in sharks ranges from 2 to over young per reproductive cycle. For example, lemon sharks reach sexual maturity at around age 13— Sharks practice internal fertilization. Mating has rarely been observed in sharks. In less flexible species the two sharks swim parallel to each other while the male inserts a clasper into the female's oviduct. Females in many of the larger species have bite marks that appear to be a result of a male grasping them to maintain position during mating.

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The bite marks may also come from courtship behavior: the male may bite the female to show his interest. In some species, females have evolved thicker skin to withstand these bites. There have been a number of documented cases in which a female shark who has not been in contact with a male has conceived a pup on her own through parthenogenesis.

The extent of this behavior in the wild is unknown. Mammals are now the only major vertebrate group in which asexual reproduction has not been observed.

Shark Sense

Scientists say that asexual reproduction in the wild is rare, and probably a last-ditch effort to reproduce when a mate is not present. Asexual reproduction diminishes genetic diversity , which helps build defenses against threats to the species. Species that rely solely on it risk extinction.


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Asexual reproduction may have contributed to the blue shark 's decline off the Irish coast. Sharks display three ways to bear their young, varying by species, oviparity , viviparity and ovoviviparity. Most sharks are ovoviviparous , meaning that the eggs hatch in the oviduct within the mother's body and that the egg's yolk and fluids secreted by glands in the walls of the oviduct nourishes the embryos. The young continue to be nourished by the remnants of the yolk and the oviduct's fluids.


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As in viviparity, the young are born alive and fully functional. Lamniforme sharks practice oophagy , where the first embryos to hatch eat the remaining eggs. Taking this a step further, sand tiger shark pups cannibalistically consume neighboring embryos. The survival strategy for ovoviviparous species is to brood the young to a comparatively large size before birth. The whale shark is now classified as ovoviviparous rather than oviparous, because extrauterine eggs are now thought to have been aborted.

Most ovoviviparous sharks give birth in sheltered areas, including bays, river mouths and shallow reefs. They choose such areas for protection from predators mainly other sharks and the abundance of food. Dogfish have the longest known gestation period of any shark, at 18 to 24 months. Basking sharks and frilled sharks appear to have even longer gestation periods, but accurate data are lacking. Some species are oviparous , laying their fertilized eggs in the water. In most oviparous shark species, an egg case with the consistency of leather protects the developing embryo s. These cases may be corkscrewed into crevices for protection.

The egg case is commonly called a mermaid's purse. Oviparous sharks include the horn shark , catshark , Port Jackson shark , and swellshark. Viviparity is the gestation of young without the use of a traditional egg, and results in live birth. The classic view describes a solitary hunter, ranging the oceans in search of food. However, this applies to only a few species.

Shark Sense, Getting in Touch With Your Inner Shark by Sharkie Zartman | | Booktopia

Most live far more social, sedentary, benthic lives, and appear likely to have their own distinct personalities. Sharks can be highly social, remaining in large schools. Sometimes more than scalloped hammerheads congregate around seamounts and islands, e. For example, oceanic whitetip sharks dominate silky sharks of comparable size during feeding. When approached too closely some sharks perform a threat display. This usually consists of exaggerated swimming movements, and can vary in intensity according to the threat level. In general, sharks swim "cruise" at an average speed of 8 kilometres per hour 5.

These exceptions may be due to the warm-blooded , or homeothermic , nature of these sharks' physiology. Sharks possess brain-to-body mass ratios that are similar to mammals and birds, [80] and have exhibited apparent curiosity and behavior resembling play in the wild. There is evidence that juvenile lemon sharks can use observational learning in their investigation of novel objects in their environment. All sharks need to keep water flowing over their gills in order for them to breathe; however, not all species need to be moving to do this. Those that are able to breathe while not swimming do so by using their spiracles to force water over their gills, thereby allowing them to extract oxygen from the water.

It has been recorded that their eyes remain open while in this state and actively follow the movements of divers swimming around them [84] and as such they are not truly asleep. Species that do need to swim continuously to breathe go through a process known as sleep swimming, in which the shark is essentially unconscious. It is known from experiments conducted on the spiny dogfish that its spinal cord , rather than its brain, coordinates swimming, so spiny dogfish can continue to swim while sleeping, and this also may be the case in larger shark species.

Most sharks are carnivorous. This type of feeding requires gill rakers —long, slender filaments that form a very efficient sieve —analogous to the baleen plates of the great whales. The shark traps the plankton in these filaments and swallows from time to time in huge mouthfuls. Teeth in these species are comparatively small because they are not needed for feeding. Other highly specialized feeders include cookiecutter sharks , which feed on flesh sliced out of other larger fish and marine mammals. Cookiecutter teeth are enormous compared to the animal's size.

The lower teeth are particularly sharp. Although they have never been observed feeding, they are believed to latch onto their prey and use their thick lips to make a seal, twisting their bodies to rip off flesh. Some seabed—dwelling species are highly effective ambush predators. Angel sharks and wobbegongs use camouflage to lie in wait and suck prey into their mouths. Other sharks feed on squid or fish, which they swallow whole. The viper dogfish has teeth it can point outwards to strike and capture prey that it then swallows intact.

tax-marusa.com/order/dyrydyho/ecouter-repondeur-telephone-fixe-bouygues.php The great white and other large predators either swallow small prey whole or take huge bites out of large animals. Thresher sharks use their long tails to stun shoaling fishes, and sawsharks either stir prey from the seabed or slash at swimming prey with their tooth-studded rostra. Many sharks, including the whitetip reef shark are cooperative feeders and hunt in packs to herd and capture elusive prey. These social sharks are often migratory, traveling huge distances around ocean basins in large schools. These migrations may be partly necessary to find new food sources.

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Sharks are found in all seas. They generally do not live in fresh water, with a few exceptions such as the bull shark and the river shark which can swim both in seawater and freshwater. In the International Shark Attack File ISAF undertook an investigation into 96 alleged shark attacks, confirming 62 of them as unprovoked attacks and 16 as provoked attacks.

The average number of fatalities worldwide per year between and from unprovoked shark attacks is 4. Contrary to popular belief, only a few sharks are dangerous to humans.

Development of the senses of sharks

Out of more than species, only four have been involved in a significant number of fatal, unprovoked attacks on humans: the great white , oceanic whitetip , tiger , and bull sharks. Despite being responsible for attacks on humans they have all been filmed without using a protective cage. The perception of sharks as dangerous animals has been popularized by publicity given to a few isolated unprovoked attacks, such as the Jersey Shore shark attacks of , and through popular fictional works about shark attacks, such as the Jaws film series.

Jaws author Peter Benchley , as well as Jaws director Steven Spielberg , later attempted to dispel the image of sharks as man-eating monsters. To help avoid an unprovoked attack, humans should not wear jewelry or metal that is shiny and refrain from splashing around too much. Until recently, only a few benthic species of shark, such as hornsharks , leopard sharks and catsharks , had survived in aquarium conditions for a year or more.

This gave rise to the belief that sharks, as well as being difficult to capture and transport, were difficult to care for. More knowledge has led to more species including the large pelagic sharks living far longer in captivity, along with safer transportation techniques that have enabled long distance transportation. Most species are not suitable for home aquaria, and not every species sold by pet stores are appropriate.

Some species can flourish in home saltwater aquaria. Some owners have been tempted to release them. Sharks figure prominently in Hawaiian mythology. Stories tell of men with shark jaws on their back who could change between shark and human form. A common theme was that a shark-man would warn beach-goers of sharks in the waters. The beach-goers would laugh and ignore the warnings and get eaten by the shark-man who warned them.


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Hawaiian mythology also includes many shark gods. Among a fishing people, the most popular of all aumakua , or deified ancestor guardians, are shark aumakua. Kamaku describes in detail how to offer a corpse to become a shark. The body transforms gradually until the kahuna can point the awe-struck family to the markings on the shark's body that correspond to the clothing in which the beloved's body had been wrapped. Such a shark aumakua becomes the family pet, receiving food, and driving fish into the family net and warding off danger.

Like all aumakua it had evil uses such as helping kill enemies.