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In the present paper, it is argued that these similarities are so significant as to motivate an incorporation of FST into VSE, considering that i a substantial common ground can be found; ii the claims that go beyond this common ground are logically compatible; and iii the generality of VSE not only does What happens when we consider transformative experiences from the perspective of gender transitions? In this paper I suggest that at least two insights emerge.

This will involve exploring some of the phenomenology of coming to know that one is trans, and in coming to decide to transition. Second, what epistemological effects are there to undergoing a transformative experience? By connecting some Collective Epistemology in Epistemology.

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Epistemology of Disagreement in Epistemology. Sociology of Science in General Philosophy of Science. Trust in Normative Ethics. Take the strong rhetoric! Sociology of Knowledge in Epistemology.

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Even while progressive educators and feminist standpoint theorists defend the value of marginalized perspectives, many marginal-voice texts continue to be deprecated in academic contexts due to their seemingly "unprofessional," engaged, and creative styles. Thus, scholars who seek to defend a feminist and multicultural curriculum need a theory of knowledge that goes beyond current standpoint theory and accounts for the unorthodox format in which many maringal standpoints appear. In response to this challenge, this essay draws on feminist and postcolonial In conclusion, the author distinguishes ethically oriented engagement with such texts from mere "politicized teaching," and she suggests ways to teach such texts that cultivate their critical potential.

Epistemology of Testimony in Epistemology. Though Indigenous women in Mexico have traditionally exhibited some of the highest levels of maternal mortality in the country—a fact that some authors have argued was an important reason to explain the EZLN uprising in —there is some evidence that the rate of maternal mortality has fallen in Zapatista communities in the Chiapas Highlands in the last two decades, and that other health indicators have improved.

In this article, we offer an account of the modest success that Zapatista communities have In particular, we argue that Zapatista women have implicitly used a form of feminist standpoint theory to diagnose the epistemic and economic injustice to which they have been traditionally subjected and to develop an epistemology of resistance that is manifested in actions such as becoming health promoters in their communities. We also argue that this epistemology of resistance is partially responsible for the improvement of health levels in their communities. Finally, on the basis of our discussion of the Zapatista case, we suggest that standpoint theory could play an important role in other healthcare settings involving oppressed minorities.

Epistemic Injustice in Epistemology. Thus from the very nature of consciousness one is led toward the absolute, which is both substance as well as subject. This paper Many of these sections do have decidedly antifeminist implications, as has been correctly pointed out by many scholars. First, I will illustrate how Hegel reconceptualizes the relationship between subject and object, and subject and community, and the related notion of objectivity. From this similarity, it will be shown that Hegelian and feminist epistemology have much more in common than previously thought.

Hegel, Misc in 19th Century Philosophy. Phenomenology, Misc in Continental Philosophy. Postmodernist standpoint theory is best understood as consisting of an applied epistemological component and a metaepistemological component. Naturalist metaepistemology and the metaepistemological component of postmodernist standpoint theory have produced complementary views of knowledge as a socially and naturally located phenomenon and have converged on a common concept of objectivity.

The applied epistemological claims of postmodernist Postmodernist standpoint theory, reliabilism, and naturalism thus form a coherent package of views in metaepistemology, first-order epistemology , and applied epistemology. In this paper I develop and support a feminist virtue epistemology and bring it into conversation with feminist contextual empiricism and feminist standpoint theory.

I argue that my view answers important questions Feminist virtue epistemology thus emerges as providing an integrative framework for pluralism in feminist epistemology that illuminated connections among theories through engagement with the lived experiences, aspirations, and epistemic work of feminist epistemic agents. Feminist Ethics in Normative Ethics. Feminist standpoint theory and critical realism both offer resources to sociologists interested in making arguments that account for causal complexity and epistemic distortion.

However, the impasse between these paradigms limits their utility.

Constructivism is a theory of learning that has roots in both philosophy and psychology

In this article, I argue that critical realism has much to gain from a confrontation with feminist theory. But taking feminist theory seriously also I argue that both paradigms will be improved by better theorization of 1 ideology as part of social ontology and 2 interactions between the context of knowledge production and social ontology. Attending to what is missing, distorted, or occluded between the knower, knowledge, and object of knowledge can provide resources for theorizing social ontology.

Standpoint theory is an explicitly political as well as social epistemology. Its central insight is that epistemic advantage may accrue to those who are oppressed by structures of domination and discounted as knowers. Feminist standpoint theorists hold that gender is one dimension of social differentiation that can make such a difference. In response to two longstanding objections I argue that epistemically consequential standpoints need not be conceptualized in essentialist terms, and that they do not confer automatic or Standpoint theory is best construed as conceptual framework for investigating the ways in which socially situated experience and interests make a contingent difference to what we know well , and to the resources we have for determining which knowledge claims we can trust.

I illustrate the advantages of this account in terms of two examples drawn from archaeological sources.

Adapting Yorùbá Epistemology in Educational Theory and Practice in Nigeria

Epistemic Contextualism and Relativism in Epistemology. Standpoint theory is based on the insight that those who are marginalized or oppressed have distinctive epistemic resources with which to understand social structures. Inasmuch as these structures shape our understanding of the natural and lifeworlds, standpoint theorists extend this principle to a range of biological and physical as well as social sciences. Standpoint theory has been articulated as a social epistemology and as an aligned methodological stance.

This essay explores how the social location of white traitorous identities might be understood. I begin by examining some of the problematic implications of Sandra Harding's standpoint framework description of race traitors as 'becoming marginal. Drawing on the work of Marilyn Frye and Anne Braden, I offer an account of the contrasting perceptions I use Maria Lugones account of identity and notions of 'world travel' and 'loving perception' and Aristotle's virtue theory to explicate the ways whites, and white feminists in particular, might cultivate a traitorous character conducive to an antiracist politics.

Whiteness in Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality. I address the problem of how to locate "traitorous" subjects, or those who belong to dominant groups yet resist the usual assumptions and practices of those groups. I argue that Sandra Harding's description of traitors as insiders, who "become marginal" is misleading. Crafting a distinction between "privilege-cognizant" and "privilege-evasive" white scripts, I offer an alternative account of race traitors as privilege-cognizant whites who refuse to animate expected whitely scripts, and who are unfaithful to worldviews whites are expected to hold.

Philosophy, Miscellaneous.

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Racialization in Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality. Arts and Humanities, Misc in Arts and Humanities.

Informal Logic in Logic and Philosophy of Logic. The paper highlights the contemporary discussions on the concept of objectivity in feminist epistemology , in which it is taken in its historical development. Following the works of S. Harding, L. Code, D. Haraway, L. Tannoch-Bland and others the author focuses mainly on one of the topics in feminist epistemology , namely the problematic of the so called "situated knowledge" as related to the objectivity of knowledge.

The paper also gives a brief outline of the transformation of "aperspective Attention is paid also to the concept of "strong objectivity", in which the ontological importance of the objectivity is stressed and the empirical-realistic core of the standpoint epistemology preserved. The chapter ends with a discussion of the contrasting attitudes to such historiography in politics and science.

A standard problem with the objectivity of social scientific theory in particular is that it is either self-referential, in which case it seems to undermine itself as ideology, or self-excepting, which seem pragmatically self-refuting. Using the example of Marx and his theory of ideology, I show how self-referential theories that include themselves in their scope of explanation can be objective.

Ideology may be roughly defined as belief distorted by class interest. I show how Marx thought that natural science was informed Capitalists have an interest in understanding the natural world to a point so that they can manipulate it for profit. Their survival in the marketplace often depends on their competitive success in doing so. The fact that their interventions into nature, driven by class interest, often succeed, is evidence of the reliability and truth of their natural scientific theories. Some bourgeois social science, Marx thinks, is therefore vindicated the same way that natural science is, because of, not despite, its success in promoting the class interests that cause it.

But the capitalist class, Marx thinks, also has an interest in obfuscating the truth about the social world. It would undermine the stability of capitalism, for example, for the bourgeoisie to adopt what Marx thinks to be the correct social theory, Marxism, and proclaim to the world that capitalism is exploitative and unstable. Capitalism creates a a need for ideological social theories that, driven by class interest, represent capitalism as just, natural, inevitable, and unalterable. If Marxism is correct, while these theories may further capitalist interests, they will not withstand the test of time as capitalist exploitation and instability engenders countersystemic political action.

In part it is whether it succeeds in further the class interests that cause it. If workers adopt bourgeois theories and Marxism is right, they will find themselves frustrated in pursuit of goals that they have, such as improving their well-being, and if Marxism is wrong, then those theories will help them further their own goals. Similarly with Marxism: if it is right, then workers who adopt it should in the long run have more success in furthering their own goals, and if not, then not. But it is question begging to say that our confidence in the reliability of Marxism is enhanced by its successful promotion of goals that capitalists do not have but according to Marxism workers do.

To avoid this problem it is necessary to compare the relative success of each sort of theory in promoting the interests and needs that the respective classes have independently of the theory, as well as by the usual criteria of scientific theory choice. Whether the same is true of other varieties of Marxism or of capitalist social theory, it is, as Zhou En Lai said when asked whether the French Revolution had succeeded, too soon to tell, at least in any definitive way.

However, and this is the point of the paper, an objective test of Marxism is possible even though Marxism says that all theory is informed by class interest. The question is whether the interests are in discovering or obfuscating the truth.

lastsurestart.co.uk/libraries/answer/3842-skype-location.php The point is not limited to Marx, but applies to any self-referential social scientific theory that includes itself in its scope. Political Theory in Social and Political Philosophy. Direct download 7 more.

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Feminist standpoint epistemology suggests that women are cognitively privileged, since gender-specific forms of oppression produce insights systematically denied to men. Yet if many forms of oppression exist, what happens when they overlap? Georg Lukacs in 20th Century Philosophy. The second edition of Jack Crumley's An Introduction to Epistemology strikes a balance between the many issues that engage contemporary epistemologists and the contributions of the major historical figures.